rect_cen_in_rect - bitmap generator for rectangular  conduc-
     tor inside rectangular conductor (part of atlc)


     rect_cen_in_rect [options... ] W H w h Er


     This man page is not a complete set  of  documentation.  See
     the  html  files for more complete information. So far, I've
     not managed to install the html files  into  /usr/local,  so
     you  will  have to look into the atlc-2.X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs
     directory for them.


     rect_cen_in_rect is a pre-processor  for  atlc,  the  finite
     difference  programme  that is used to calculate the proper-
     ties of a  two-conductor  electrical  transmission  line  of
     arbitrary  cross  section. The programme rect_cen_in_rect is
     used as a fast way of generating bitmaps (there is  no  need
     to  use  a  graphics programme), for a rectangular conductor
     placed centrally inside another rectangular conductor,  like

     -----------------------------------------------------  ^
     |                                                   |  |
     |            Dielectric, permittivity=Er            |  |
     |                                                   |  |
     |                                                   |  |
     |                                                   |  |
     |             <----------w----------->              |  |
     |             ------------------------   ^          |  |
     |             |                      |   |          |  |
     |             |  Metallic conductor  |   |          |  H
     |             |  conductor (must be  |   h          |  |
     |             |  in  the centre)     |   |          |  |
     |             |                      |   |          |  |
     |             ------------------------   ^          |  |
     |                                                   |  |
     |                                                   |  |
     |                                                   |  |
     |                                                   |  |
     |                                                   |  |
     |                                                   |  |
     -----------------------------------------------------  |

     The parameters 'W' and 'H' and the inner dimensions  of  the
     outer  conductor.  The outer dimensions of the inner conduc-
     tor are 'w' and 'h'. The inner conductor is  assumed  be  be
     placed  centrally  inside  the  outer  conductor. The spaced
     between the two conductors is filled with  a  dielectric  of
     relative permittivity Er

     The bitmap is printed to standard output, which MUST be  re-
     directed  to either a file, or piped into the standard input
     of atlc, in one of the following two ways.

     rect_cen_in_rect W H w h Er > filename.bmp OR
     rect_cen_in_rect -f filename.bmp W H w h Er

     The bitmaps produced  by  rect_cen_in_rect  are  24-bit  bit
     colour bitmaps, as required by atlc.

     The permittivity of the bitmap, set by 'Er',  determine  the
     colours  in  the  bitmap. If Er is 1.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.33, 2.5,
     3.3, 3.335, 4.8 or 10.2, then the  colour  corresponding  to
     that  permittivity  will  be  set  according  to the colours
     defined in COLOURS below. If Er is not one of those  permit-
     tivities,  the  region of permittivity Er will be set to the
     colour 0xCAFF00. The programme atlc does not know what these
     permittivites  are,  so  they  atlc,  must  be told with the
     comand line option -d, as in example 4 below.


     -b bitmapsize
     is used to set the size of the bitmap, and so  the  accuracy
     to  which  atlc is able to calculate the transmission line's
     properties. The default value for 'bitmapsize'  is  normally
     4,  although  this  is set at compile time. The value can be
     set anywhere from 1 to 15, but more than 8 is  probably  not

     -f outfile
     Set the output filename. By default, the bitmap is  sent  to
     stdout,  but  it *must* be sent to a file, with this option,
     or as described above.

     Causes rect_cen_in_rect to print some data to stderr.  Note,
     nothing  extra  goes to standard output, as that is expected
     to be redirected to a bitmap file.


     The 24-bit bitmaps that atlc expects, have 8  bits  assigned
     to  represent the amount of red, 8 for blue and 8 for green.
     Hence there are 256 levels of red, green and blue, making  a
     total of 256*256*256=16777216 colours. Every one of the pos-
     sible 16777216 colours can be defined precisely by the stat-
     ing the exact amount of red, green and blue, as in:

     red         = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000
     green       = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00
     blue        = 000,000,255 or 0x0000ff
     black       = 000,000,000 or 0x000000
     white       = 255,255,255 or 0xffffff
     Brown       = 255,000,255 or 0xff00ff
     gray        = 142,142,142 or 0x8e8e8e

     Some colours, such as pink, turquiose,  sandy,  brown,  gray
     etc  may mean slightly different things to different people.
     This is not so with  atlc,  as  the  programme  expects  the
     colours  below  to  be EXACTLY defined as given. Whether you
     feel the colour is sandy or yellow is up to you, but if  you
     use  it  in your bitmap, then it either needs to be a colour
     recognised by atlc, or you must define  it  with  a  command
     line option (see OPTIONS and example 5 below).
     The following conductors are recognised by atlc:
     red    = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000 is the live conductor.
     green  = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00 is the grounded conductor.
     blue   = 000,000,000 or 0x000000 is the negative conductor

     All bitmaps must have the live (red)  and  grounded  (green)
     conductor.  The  blue  conductor is not currently supported,
     but it will be used to indicate a negative conductor,  which
     will  be  needed  if/when  the  programme  gets  extended to
     analyse directional couplers.

     The following dielectrics are recognised by atlc and so  are
     produced by rect_cen_in_rect.

     white      255,255,255 or 0xFFFFFF as Er=1.0   (vacuum)
     pink       255,202,202 or 0xFFCACA as Er=1.0006 (air)
     light blue 130,052,255 or 0x8235Ef as Er=2.1   (PTFE)
     Mid gray   142,242,142 or 0x8E8E8E as Er=2.2   (duroid 5880)
     mauve         255.000,255    or    0xFF00FF    as    Er=2.33
     (polyethylene)  yellow     255,255,000 or 0xFFFF00 as Er=2.5
     sandy      239,203,027 or 0xEFCC1A as Er=3.3   (PVC)
     brown      188,127,096 or 0xBC7F60 as Er=3.335 (epoxy resin)
     Terquoise  026,239,179 or 0x1AEFB3 as Er=4.8   (glass PCB)
     Dark gray  142,142,142 or ox696969 as Er=6.15  (duroid 6006)
     L. gray    240,240,240 or 0xDCDCDC as Er=10.2  (duroid 6010)
     D. orange  213,130,067 or 0xD5A04D as Er=100.0  (mainly  for
     test purposes)
     If the permittivity is one not in the above list, then those
     parts of the image with Er will be set to 0xCAFF00.


     Here are a few examples  of  the  use  of  rect_cen_in_rect.
     Again,  see  the html documentation in atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-
     doc/index.html for more examples.

     1) In the first example, there is just a vacuum  dielectric,
     so  Er=1.0.   The  inner of 1x1 inches (or mm, miles etc) is
     placed centrally in an  outer  with  dimensions  3.3  x  3.9

     % rect_cen_in_rect 3.3 3.9 1 1 1 > 1.bmp
     % atlc 1.bmp

     2) In this second example, an inner of 15.0 mm x 5.0  mm  is
     surrounded  by  an  outer with internal dimensions of 71.5 x
     60.0 mm. There is a material with permittivity  2.1  (Er  of
     PTFE)   around   the   inner   conductor.  The  output  from
     rect_cen_in_rect is sent to a file 2.bmp, which is then pro-
     cessed by atlc

     % rect_cen_in_rect 71.5 60.0 15.0 5.0 2.1 > 2.bmp
     % atlc 2.bmp

     3) In example 3, the bitmap  is  made  larger,  to  increase
     accuracy,  but  otherwise  this  is  identical to the second
     example. % rect_cen_in_rect -b7 71.5 60 15 5 2.1 > 3.bmp
     % atlc 3.bmp

     In   the   fourth   example,   instead    of    re-directing
     rect_cen_in_rect's  output  to a file with the > sign, it is
     done using the -f option.
     % rect_cen_in_rect -f 4.bmp 61.5 28.1 5 22 2.1
     % atlc 4.bmp


     atlc(1), circ_in_circ(1). rect_in_rect(1),  circ_in_rect(1).
     rect_in_circ(1), readbin(1) and sym_strip(1).                - Home page       - Download area
     atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
     atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/atlc.pdf - theory paper
     atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples              - my home page          - ham radio pages

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